Mainstreaming Climate Change in Integrated Water Resources Management in Pangani River Basin - Tanzania
This project will initiate Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) frameworks in the Pangani River Basin of Northern Tanzania. These frameworks will address climate change and pilot adaptation measures. It is one of the first field-based climate change preparation projects in Eastern Africa with strong links to basin and national planning and policy, and as such will build national and regional capacity, provide lessons and serve as a national and regional demonstration site.
Developmental objective is to prepare water managers and users for changing climatic conditions (especially reduced flows) through provision of technical data, planning, and improved allocation, capacity building and awareness-raising. The overall goal is to mainstream climate change into Integrated Water Resources Management in the Pangani Basin, so that it may support the equitable provision of freshwater for the environment and for livelihoods for current and future generations.
The Pangani River Basin is about 43,650 km2, with about 5% of this area in Kenya and the remainder distributed across the Arusha, Manyara, Kilimanjaro and Tanga administrative regions of Tanzania. The Pangani River system drains the southern and eastern sides of Africa’s highest peak, Mt. Kilimanjaro (5,985 m), as well as Mt. Meru (4,566 m), then passes through the arid Maasai Steppe, draining the Pare and Usambara Mountain Ranges before reaching the coastal town of Pangani, marking its estuary with the Indian Ocean. The Pangani Basin has an estimated population of 3.7 million people, 80% of whom rely, either directly or indirectly, on agriculture for their livelihoods (IUCN 2003). In addition to nationally important large and small scale agricultural resources, the basin also includes four hydroelectric power facilities with a combined production capacity of 91.5 MW or 17% of Tanzania’s national power grid capacity (IUCN 2003).
It is a water-stressed basin with many latent and emerging conflicts among water user groups. The basin has been adversely affected by changing climatic conditions during the past decade and the situation will likely worsen as temperature increases are expected to reduce annual flow in the basin by 6-10% (VPO-URT 2003, OECD 2003). The Pangani Basin must begin to incorporate climate change preparation at all levels into its IWRM planning and management. Technical information on the social and economic effects of river flow scenarios under changing climatic conditions must be collected and used to inform the water allocation process. Water users, local governments, other sectoral ministries such as agriculture, energy, planning and investment must be made aware that Pangani Basin is not just experiencing a couple of bad years, rather the water availability is not expected to improve and that adaptation measures must be taken to safeguard the livelihoods and natural resources of the basin. Institutional linkages must be established between water-dependent sectors and also with the National Climate Change Committee. This project will initiate IWRM frameworks in the basin that address climate change and pilot adaptation measures. It is one of the first field-based climate change preparation projects in Eastern Africa with strong links to basin and national planning and policy, and as such will build national and regional capacity, provide lessons and serve as a national and regional demonstration site.
The Objective of the proposed project intervention is to: Prepare water managers and users for changing climatic conditions (especially reduced flows) through provision of technical data, planning, and improved allocation, capacity building and awareness-raising. Within this overall purpose, project outcomes and activities will focus on three technical areas:
- Understanding current and future climatic vulnerability (in the broadest sense of the term): and developing and using such information for more equitable water allocation in a changing hydrological regime;
- Negotiated outcomes to minimize future climatic vulnerability and future climatic risk: Continuing dialogues to ensure sustainable water resources management;
- Incorporating climate change adaptation in the water sector: national linkages and lessons learned. Lessons learned will come from experiences of all three outcomes.